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Consumer Technology

Published on October 13th, 2015 | by Glenn Meyers


Shedding Light On LED Lights: Leaders In Cost & Performance

October 13th, 2015 by  

Originally published on GreenLivingIdeas.

In this era about driving attention to energy efficiency, few,  if any, are going to argue a case against the benefits of using LED lights.

But replacing burnt-out incandescent bulbs with LEDs is no simple undertaking, especially when it comes to price. LED bulbs, built using emitting diodes, although certain to last longer than the Edison-style incandescent bulbs and demand less electricity, are not what you expect to find in the nearest neighborhood bargain basement store.

LED bulb Cree cfl-vs-led-light-bulbs

Another incandescent replacement is the compact fluorescent light, or CFL, which contains  mercury, a toxic chemical. Aside from how best to dispose of toxic bulbs when they burn out (recycling these seems to be a myth), the biggest knock on CFLs involves the overall, less attractive light they provide when compared to the old-fashioned incandescents.

The Transition To LEDs

While LEDs today are far less expensive now than they used to be, they still cost considerably more than a 4-pack of the old incandescents,  which are being discontinued. To this point, Holly Johnson adds, “And while prices for LED light bulbs were astronomical when we first covered this topic just a few years ago — upwards of $100 for one bulb — you can now pick up a cheap, 60-watt-equivalent LED light bulb for less than $5.”

LEDs different shutterstock_209328583

While Johnson’s staggering price of $100 may seem unreal to some readers, a $50 tab per bulb was not uncommon that long ago. Today, the average is below $10 a bulb, even though certain LED brands cost more.

How LEDs Work

LEDs have traditionally been used in small electronic displays. According to the Lighting Research Center, LEDs are semiconductor diodes, electronic devices that permit current to flow in only one direction. The diode is formed by bringing two slightly different materials together to form a PN junction (Figure below). In a PN junction, the P side contains excess positive charge (“holes,” indicating the absence of electrons) while the N side contains excess negative charge (electrons).

Put another way, LED light bulbs bring together currents with a positive and negative charge to create energy released in the form of light. The result is a fast source of light that is reliable, instantaneous, and able to be dimmed. (CFLs cannot be dimmed.)

LED PN junction figure2

“When a forward voltage is applied to the semiconducting element forming the PN junction (heretofore referred to as the junction), electrons move from the N area toward the P area and holes move toward the N area. Near the junction, the electrons and holes combine. As this occurs, energy is released in the form of light that is emitted by the LED.” -Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

LED Lifespan Makes The Difference

Ultimately, what puts LEDs above incandescent bulbs and CFLs is how long they can last. According to Consumer Reports, LED light bulbs can last anywhere from 20,000 to 50,000 hours (up to 5 1/2 years), or up to five times longer than any comparable bulb on the market. Just don’t break them or expose them to water.

Buying Energy Star Certified LED Lights

Here’s the lowdown on what ENERGY STAR certification means: Strict energy efficiency guidelines set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Lighting products that have earned the ENERGY STAR label deliver exceptional features, while using less energy. Saving energy helps you save money on utility bills and protects the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

According to Energy Star, these certified bulbs

  • Use about 70-90% less energy than traditional incandescent bulbs
  • Last 10 to 25 times longer
  • Save $30 to $80 in electricity costs over each bulb’s lifetime
  • Meet strict quality and efficiency standards that are tested by accredited labs and certified by a third party
  • Produce about 70-90% less heat, so it’s safer to operate
  • Can cut energy costs associated with home cooling

These factors stack a pretty impressive reasons for using LEDs.

Top Global Manufacturers Of LEDs

LED candles Phillips sparkling_ambience_with_LED_candles_06

LED candles from Phillips

The Photonics Industry and Technology Development Association (PIDA) compiled a list of the top 10 global LED lighting manufacturers, according to Economic Daily News. According to Source Guide, there are presently 965 LED manufacturers world The top three are Philips, Osram, and Panasonic.

  • Philips
  • Osram
  • Panasonic
  • Toshiba
  • Cree
  • ENDO
  • Zumtobel
  • Koizumi
  • Iris Ohyama
  • Sharp

LED Pricing

Consumer Reports has written this on LED pricing: “When LEDs were $50 a bulb not long ago it took years to earn back the money you spent on an LED. But now you’ll find LEDs for $10 and less.”

When you start price shopping, keep in mind how many different types of LEDs that are available for purchase. You guessed it: PLENTY!

LED Buying Basics

Your LED light bulb search should be based on what light best provides the amount of light you need. You should also weigh in the color of light you like. Then there are other basics to consider, such as price and the dimensions of the bulb and base.

Using a color temperature spectrum, lights can be all colors. However, the shades of white can range from warm to cool white. The lower the color temperature, the more yellow your white light will appear. This type of light is referred to as soft white. Distinctions like these about user preference will usually do plenty to drive the sale of the LED product, price aside.

According to the Top Ten Reviews site on 2015 LEDs, you will find a comprehensive list about the best LED manufacturers, and their product specifications

Warranty & Support: “A good LED light bulb should come with at least a three- to five-year warranty, while the best LED bulbs have up to a 10-year warranty,” states TopTenReviews, who published the Top 10 list below.

The Top 10

Cree 9.5 Watt $9.97

Philips LED 425264 $60.00

G7 Power Incline $19.95

Feit 13.5-watt $22.50

EcoSmart GP19 $14.97

TCP LED 40W $19.99

Sylvania 73014 $9.81

GE 89888 $3.24

Philips 433227 10.5-watt Slim Style $3.00

Lighting Ever 10W 100018 $6.99

Notice first the significantly large difference in pricing on these lights, from $3 to $60. Read all of the print and make certain you are satisfied with what you’re buying.

In the end, LED lighting is an environmentally friendly option that will save you money in the long run. Regardless of what you choose, LED lighting solutions will shine long after incandescent and CFL bulbs have quit working. And you are contributing to green living!

Images: Current LED technologies in one picture via Shutterstock hand on bulb via Cree via Facebook, LED candles via Phillips

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About the Author

is a writer, producer, and director. Meyers was editor and site director of Green Building Elements, a contributing writer for CleanTechnica, and is founder of Green Streets MediaTrain, a communications connection and eLearning hub. As an independent producer, he's been involved in the development, production and distribution of television and distance learning programs for both the education industry and corporate sector. He also is an avid gardener and loves sustainable innovation.

  • Otis11

    And no mention of CRI…

  • Wayne Williamson

    wow…probably one of the best videos I’ve ever seen on led lighting…thanks, I will be sharing……

  • Dark Shroud

    Cree is my first choice. I’ve replaced a good amount of the lights in my home with LED bulbs purchased at Home Depot.

  • timbuck93

    Philips SlimStyle has a 240 Hz flicker — if you can see flicker quite easily, (as I can) then that may bother you. You may not be able to see it through a lamp shade, but I can see it through a mirror, with the led light reflecting on the brass … the metal in the lamp shade, — through a mirror. So, just keep that in mind.

    • Matt

      Flicker sensitivity lucky only impacts a small portion of the population. Computer screens when they first went from Green burn on, to refresh, had rates slow enough for me to see a lot. Someone moving they hand in front to point was like a needle in the eye. Todays screens are much better. You will have to look for LEDs which a different rate.

      • timbuck93

        Yeah, I don’t know of any other Philips bulb that has the flicker — but I haven’t used any of them other than the cheap “everyday” bulbs.

  • Modok EvilMastermind

    I am waiting for the next revolution of LED lighting…actually having homes partially rewired for DC. If you are a PV owner you are taking in DC putting it back to the grid in AC and then feeding it to your efficient LED bulbs where you convert it back to DC again.

    When I say waiting I am really saying I am ignorant and have no idea. If this is a thing I do not think it is common knowledge…Are people by-passing the inefficiencies of jumping the fence twice?

    • Bob_Wallace

      This is a common idea floated. I have yet to see anyone to the math.

      My take is that a house/building would have their 120/240 feed to into an AC/DC converter and then a second set of wires would carry the DC to light fixtures where we’d find LEDs without their own AC/DC converter.

      I can see some cost savings on eliminating several AC/DC converters and using only a single larger one. Wonder how much would be saved per house?

      Would there be any electricity savings? Would a central converter be more efficient than the ones found in LED lamps?

      There could be a new fixture/lamp cost. The contact base for DC LEDs and AC LEDs would have to be different. Would one do only ceiling and wall lights or also table and floor lamps? Replacing nice lamps/fixtures would be expensive and rewiring them would have some cost. I see a lot of cost here, especially if one hires out the work. A nice house could be up against thousands of dollars.

      The new wire, would one open up their walls and bury the wire run as is done with AC wiring during installation or would the wire be run on the surface of walls and ceilings? The wire itself might not be too expensive, but it would have to be protected against damage. It might look kind of tacky to have a chase running up the wall and halfway across one’s ceilings to get to the fixture. Are we looking at only electrician work or also sheetrock and painting?

      How about switches? Open the wall to reuse existing boxes? Install new switches or use the existing AC ones? Run a chase up to the switch plate, dive under, come out and run to the light fixture?

      With LEDs now dropping below $3 would there be any payback?

      Someone should do the math.

      • timbuck93

        Should they? Is it worth doing the math…. Will I ever use this math again?

      • jeffhre

        There have been some experimental homes built with DC. Interesting question.

        • Bob_Wallace

          That’s a clean build, the costs would not be comparable to a retrofit.

          Having lived off the grid and on a sailboat with 12 vdc my experience tells me that the choice of fixtures and appliances is very limited and often very much more expensive.

          The price of “60 watt” 120 vac screw in bulbs is now breaking below $3. That’s a result of large scale manufacturing/competition. About 100% of US homes are ready to have an incandescent bulb screwed out and an LED screwed in. It would take a very major effort to build that sort of market for ‘stand alone’ LEDs.

          Rather that Home Depot offering 148 different ceiling fixtures for a long time with LEDs there would be a choice of one.

          • jeffhre

            “About 100% of US homes are ready to have an incandescent bulb screwed out and an LED screwed in. It would take a very major effort to build that sort of market for ‘stand alone’ LEDs.”

            Yeah, tell me about it! I’m designing a relighting of the living room. I see a lot of “LED” fixtures offered at insanely high prices and think – don’t they realize folks can screw an LED bulb into any cheap fixture?

      • Matt

        It is also a chicken and egg problem. There are very few, close to zero, existing homes with DC runs or fixtures for direct DC LED lights. So you have to create a new market. Maybe if the math does work a big player would convince a large new high rise to go this way. Prove it saves way more than standard LEDs, and then get more other new construction to flip.

    • Steven F

      A DC circuit in the house would reduce the number of AC to DC converters and would potentially more efficient than a AC system with one multiple AC to DC converters. However what you gain in efficiency is lost in the wires. 12VDC systems need to have a lot more current flowing through the wires than in a AC system. When you reduce the voltage the current has to go up to deliver the same amount of power. To carry the higher current you would need substantially thicker wires, which cost a lot more than thinner AC wires.

      For Example say you need 200 watts of LED lighting to properly light a room. At 120VAC you would need about 1.6 amps of current and 18AWG wire (0.04 inches in diameter. A 12 volt system would need wires size to carry 16amps, 9AWG wire with a diameter of 0.11 inches in diameter. The single AC to DC converter will also need to use thicker wire in its transformer which means greater cost and again more losses.

      The cost savings of a low voltage system is not significant and the efficiency gain would be modest at best. Additionally the 120V wiring can also power ceiling fans and other higher power devices. A 12V system would only work for lights.

      • Modok EvilMastermind

        200 Watts of LED lighting for a room? I replaced 4 85 Watt floods in my basement with 4 ~12 Watt bulbs with LED. If I had 200 Watts of LED bulbs down here I don’t think I would be able to see from too much light? Maybe I am not understanding you example?

        I am not saying your example is incorrect but I am find this example confusing. I have so much light down here at 48 watts we frequently take bulbs out to watch TV.

        The other bigger point I made above was that if you were already generating DC to begin with you are converting twice. Perhaps this is too specialized for now but I think from a future perspective we might all have some DC source coming in. Certainly if you are a PV user this might be more appealng sooner…if It makes sense.

        Also I believe for standard electrical code for US 15A breakers we are already required for 12awg? I do not think any house in the US uses 18awg for AC.

        A last point would be that as a future nearly all of our appliances in the house are DC which also contain their own AC->DC converters. I admit this might not work out for reasons you state and repackaging DC-only might be a big manufacturing change but we are living much more in a DC world in our house now than an AC one.

        • Steven F

          “200 Watts of LED lighting for a room? I replaced 4 85 Watt floods in my basement with 4 ~12 Watt bulbs with LED. If I had 200 Watts of LED bulbs down here I don’t think I would be able to see from too much light? Maybe I am not understanding you example?”

          If you go outside at noon on a clear day and put a light meter on the ground you would see a reading of 20,000 to 24,000 lumens. Your typical office is has about 500 lumens per squar meter of floor space. in your typical office people don’t have to turn out the lights the see the computer flat screen. your 4 12Watt LED light bulbs put out about 4,000 lumens total but when you ad up the floor space you are probably bellow the 500 lumens per square meter of the typical office.

          The problem with your basement is poor placement of the lights. In the office most people are looking down at there work. no one is looking up at the lights. You probably have your 4 lights at eye level and they are probably often in your eye making it hard for your eyes to adjust to the light and dark areas.

          In my small living room I have 16 GU10 bulbs and 2 pendent led lights consuming about 120 watts. It is not blinding light. All the GU10 bulbs are pointed at the walls or art on the walls. the brightest bulbs put out 500 lumens (equivalent to 40 watt incandescent bulbs) The light they generate is reflected off the white walls. the two pendent lights are located above and behind the couch and are frequently not in view. The room is evenly lit with minimal dark areas. Lighting levels are still below office levels.

          People have poorly lit rooms due to bad placement of very bright lights. But because the few bright lights are in view they often think the room is too bright.

          “I am not saying your example is incorrect but I am find this example confusing. I have so much light down here at 48 watts we frequently take bulbs out to watch TV.”

          directly above my TV are 3 bulbs putting out 900 lumens and consume about 15watts of power. They don’t interfere with TV watching because the light is all focused on the table below the TV where I have my stereo and disk players. None hits the TV or hits my eye. It only land on the table. I can leave all my lights on and still watch TV.

          In a well designed lighting setup for a room 150 watts of LED power consumption is not unheard of for one room.

          When people talk of DC power lighting they often talking about one DC power supply powering all liights in all rooms. of the house so in my example a 200 watt power supply may be too small. Also I assumed the DC system would be a 12V system. One could argue that a 3.5V DC system would be better since a single white LEDs only needs 3.5V to work at full brightness. At 3.5V the current required would be 3 times my example.

          “The other bigger point I made above was that if you were already generating DC to begin with you are converting twice. Perhaps this is too specialized for now but I think from a future perspective we might all have some DC source coming in. Certainly if you are a PV user this might be more appealing sooner…if It makes sense.”

          It does make sense until you realize PV systems often operate at 48V DC and in some cases at 600V DC. these voltages are used to keep the current in the wiring manageable. A DC to DC converter would still be needed to convert PV voltage to 12V DC. So no significant savings.

          “I do not think any house in the US uses 18awg for AC.”

          Tosters and microwave ovens and other common appliances would destroy 18AWG wiring due to the power they need. That is why 12AWG wiring is often used in homes.

          • Modok EvilMastermind

            Steven, I think we might have had a misunderstanding. My 13W LED (just checked and I was off by 1W) floods replaced 65W incandescents (e.g. they are 65W requivalent bulbs). So the basement now is at 3000 lumens with those. but this is only drawing 48W which is why I was confused with you running numbers for 200W. 200W of LEDs would be way more than 4000 lumens of light. You originally stated 200W for one room. I agree for a whole house you would need a bigger PSU than 200W though.

            Thanks for the info on what PV systems use for voltage that is good to know and one of the reasons why I asked the question.

  • Adrian

    Still waiting on a 2700K GU10 base 50W halogen replacement from one of the big names.

    I have some Chinese ones at the moment, but the color spectrum on them is a little funny and they’re not quite as bright as Philips or GE halogen equivalents. 800 lumens with a decent CRI would be nice…

    • newnodm

      Soraa GU10 is going into high end retail and museums. These bulbs not only have a high CRI, but they properly render strong reds.
      These bulbs also have inexpensive snap on filters for a variety of effects.

    • Steven F

      I have a number of GU10 LED bulbs. I have not found 2700K bulbs. 50W is about 500lumens. You will probably never see 800 lumen GU10 bulbs. GU10 bulbs have a very limited surface area to disipate heat. 800 lumen GU10 bulbs would probably produce too much heat. The brightest GU10 bulbs I have found are Sylvania


  • timbuck93

    You know, since this is discussing the technical details about LED, I feel that I can appropriately post the fluxometer, I think you all might like it — seriously click those “What’s this” buttons, they are very helpful.

    I could describe it, but it wouldn’t be any good, it’s a color spectrum for over 100 light sources, most of them (O.K. maybe around 40 or so, like the phones and tablets, measured by the two-person team, and the rest imported. It shows you mainly the effect it will have on sleep:


  • timbuck93

    Oh yeah, instead of having a “bulb”, why not have a panel? LED Panels are quite cool looking, and come in MANY different color temperatures, which I strongly hope are accurate… I’d like a 5000K, 5500K and a 6500K, and to top it off really nicely, mix in a 3200K LED panel.

    There is even one that has BOTH 3200K and 5000K and you can mix them together at individual brightness levels to get it JUST right! I may get that even though it’s about $200.

  • Bob_Wallace

    I think you haven’t seen anything about Walmart LEDs because no one knew about them. $2.44 for a 60 watt replacement bulb is a great price. Looks like they’ve got them in 2700k and 5000k.

    Non-dimmable. That’s no problem for most of us. Especially a lower output light.

    Now that you’ve brought the news we can spread it. (Certainly not a Walmart fan, but climate change is a bigger problem than greedy people from Arkansas.)

    • Bob_Wallace

      Home Depot has 60 watt eq. LEDs for $2.51 and Phillips (known brand) for under $4.

      Cost should be no excuse any longer.

      • timbuck93

        I got burned on Philips “Everyday” bulb, it was $5/light for 6 lights, LESS than $30.

        The light output is absolutely horrendous. Will **NEVER by the cheap variety from Philips again.

        I’ll try the “Ambient” whatever variety.

        • Bob_Wallace

          You’ve pretty well demonstrated that you have “unusual” sensitivity to light colors, Tim. ;o)

          I’ve got a Phillips “60” and I think it’s fine. Just as good as my Crees.
          Perhaps you got some defective ones. Take them back.

          • timbuck93

            > Take them back

            Haha, yeah, I’m outside the 30 days and absolutely HATE returning items, and also I bought online, that may have been the big error there.

            I’ll agree with you I am highly sensitive to purple in LED lights, but with sunlight, it’s not like I’m seeing UV at all, so I know I have moderately normal color vision, but think the purple in led just sticks out a bit more than others.

            Also I hate the color (not purple itself) but that glow, and sadly my camera could not pick it up at all, tried changing all the settings, getting in REALLY close etc. So sad.

            I’m picky about color, and have ordered 3 light ropes, 1 blue incandescent (for the darker more natural blue, an orange LED, and a cool white. I’ll let you know what they are like. I wish Philips just wouldn’t peddle (wrong spelling?) out cheap shit, that’d make me very happy.

          • Bob_Wallace

            What I’m hearing is that you have different needs than most people, therefore you may need to spend more for your lightbulbs in order to be happy.

            That’s not a real problem as even the more expensive bulbs will pay for themselves, it will just take a little longer.

            That said, it might not be helpful for you to dis bulbs to the general public based on your unusual needs. The $3 bulbs are working great for most of us. We need to move to LEDs as part of our climate change fight.
            If you find a bulb that is clearly off spec (draw/color/life) then it would be appropriate to bring that to people’s attention. But I can’t see that you’re helping by making a big deal about how you can see purple when you can’t even get your camera to record what your eyes see.

            It could well be that your eyes are more sensitive to short wavelengths than average. Not all eyes are the same, someone has to be the outlier.

          • timbuck93

            I’ve looked at the lights one more time and it’s not so much a purple tint but just not a warm white–I’d say is a BLINDING white. It’s not a bluish white, it’s just more neutral, higher temp (3500-3700K white) and I was not ready for that.

            I don’t know but something about them just strikes me as “off” about the color. And I don’t trust my camera on this one. I’ll get a higher quality variety and compare it here with what I see and provide pictures.

            I don’t want to do that with the ones I have now because you may end up thinking I’m just bat shit crazy, but that doesn’t seem to be the case.

          • Bob_Wallace

            I think it entirely possible that your retinal sensitivity curve could be different than that of most people. Some people hear much higher frequencies than do others. People vary. The tools used to build us are not very precise.

          • timbuck93

            Yeah there could be something like that for sure, I’ll go ahead and mention that I’m legally blind so that may also have an effect on some colors.

            I may just get a $100 camera though haha!
            But I agree with you, I’m clearly more sensitive to differences in certain colors and LED shoes that very well.

            I’ll let you know what the cool white rope looks like, I may think it’s too cool (bluish tint) but that would be accurate for cool white and I won’t complain there.

          • Steven F

            “I’ll agree with you I am highly sensitive to purple in LED lights, but with sunlight, it’s not like I’m seeing UV at all, so I know I have moderately normal color vision, but think the purple in led just sticks out a bit more than others.”

            Purple LEDs typically have a light wavelength of about 430nm. UV is wavelengths less than 300nm. LED bulbs use 465nm blue LEDs which drives Red (600nm) green(500nm) and Yellow (450nm) phosphors. Sorry there is no purple in white LEDs.

            I think the color sensitivity of your eyes are very different than most people.

            “it’s not so much a purple tint but just not a warm white–I’d say is a BLINDING white. It’s not a bluish white, it’s just more neutral, higher temp (3500-3700K white) and I was not ready for that.”

            Given everything you have said, I think you would like 2700K bulbs more than other color temperatures. Over 90% of the blue light is converted by phosphors to other colors. Furthermore 2700K bulbs appear to be slightly dimmer to most people than 3000K which still has significant blue. Anything with a higher temperature will have a lot more blue. Try avoiding lower priced LEDs not made by major manufactures. The color temperature specs on these lamps are generally less accurate than major brands such asCree, Philips or slyania LEDs.

          • Bob_Wallace

            How about 2500K LEDs, even better?

          • timbuck93

            Yeah 2500K would be great in 2300K is much more common.

            I don’t E12 chandelier bulbs but was looking around and found this:

            See the video review and it does a great job of mimicking the warm yellow tone of Incandescent.

          • timbuck93

            > Sorry there is no purple in white LEDs.

            I don’t mean to be rude but I don’t agree here at all. Go buy a cheap LED flashlight that uses the “white” LED and you’ll probably see what I’m seeing. I know normal people can see this. In fact I’ll take a picture of an LED bar that I KNOW had this issue ABC will / should be visible on camera. I’ll update tomorrow or maybe tonight.. nah tomorrow I’ll update.

          • Kiwiiano

            I wish they’d stop refering to “warm white” and “cool white”. Warm white is OK, around 3000K or 2700°C the temperature of almost melting tungsten but so called “cool white” LEDs or CFLs are simulating around 6000K or 5700°C, hotter than the surface of the sun. They should actually be termed “incredibly hot white” or just “daylight white”.

          • jeffhre

            That seems fair, many of the Phillips bulbs are closer to sunlight and not as warm as we are used to. Phillips has warmer color (more yellow like incandescents) lights now also. <2500 K?

          • Otis11

            Well, to be fair the Crees are terrible at CRI… so if that’s what he’s talking about, that won’t help him.

            (Granted, less than 10% of the populace can notice… I just harp on it because I’m in that 10%…)

      • Brent Jatko

        You can get a 3-pack of GE “stick” lights for $9.97 now.

    • Frank

      Tip of the hat to these guys.

      The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
      Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, Shuji Nakamura

  • JamesWimberley

    “LED bulbs … are not what you expect to find in the nearest neighborhood bargain basement store.” Where on earth do you live? My home is in a small village on the Costa del Sol in Spain. The Chinese general store sells LED bulbs. The German budget supermarkets Aldi and Lidl sell LED bulbs. The big Eroski supermarket in the nearest shopping centre sells LED bulbs.

  • carol argo

    My city is right now replacing all their classic light for led city light. Going from those 1 kw each (twin for about .1 kw each (for about .2 kw per hour.means a huge drop in electricity network pressure in winter time and nice saving

    • Bob_Wallace

      Plus huge savings due to not having to send crews out to replace burnt out bulbs as often.

  • Aaron Lephart

    The script they are running to grab prices on Amazon is messed up and not accurate.

    All the best,
    Aaron Lephart

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