CO2 Emissions

Published on October 3rd, 2013 | by Guest Contributor


World’s Carbon Budget To Be Spent In Three Decades

October 3rd, 2013 by  

Originally published on the World Resources Institute’s WRI Insights blog.
By Kelly Levin

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) has delivered an overwhelming consensus that climate change impacts are accelerating, fueled by human-caused emissions. We may have just about 30 years left until the world’s carbon budget is spent if we want a likely chance of limiting warming to 2 degrees C. Breaching this limit would put the world at increased risk of forest fires, coral bleaching, higher sea level rise, and other dangerous impacts.

When Will Our Carbon Budget Run Out?

The international community has adopted a goal for global warming not to rise above 2°C compared to pre-industrial temperatures. Scientists have devoted considerable effort to understanding what magnitude of emissions reductions are necessary to limit warming to this level, as the world faces increasingly dangerous climate change impacts with every degree of warming (see Box 1).

IPCC AR5 summarizes the scientific literature and estimates that cumulative carbon dioxide emissions related to human activities need to be limited to 1 trillion tonnes C (1000 PgC) since the beginning of the industrial revolution if we are to have a likely chance of limiting warming to 2°C. This is “our carbon budget” – the same concept as a checking account. When we’ve spent it all, there’s no more money (and the planet’s overdraft fees will be much more significant than a bank’s small charges for bounced checks).1

Global carbon budget

World’s carbon budget chart via World Resources Institute

The report also states that as of 2011, we have emitted roughly 531 PgC since the industrial revolution, meaning we have already burned through about 53 percent of that carbon budget.

Do the math, and the world only has 469 PgC left in the budget. This balance puts us on track to exhaust our remaining carbon budget before the end of 2044 under a carbon intensive trajectory.2

For context, consider Earth’s increasing pace of emissions: While the first half of the entire global carbon budget was used up over 250 years, the second half of the budget would be used up in only about three decades if emissions continue unabated.

This new finding has significant implications for how many more years we can continue to emit at a carbon-intensive rate. In this post, I’ll explain why the 1 trillion tonne figure and the three decade estimate matter.

Why Is the IPCC Talking About Cumulative Emissions?

To understand emissions reductions necessary to have a good chance of limiting warming to 2°C, the climate community has focused largely on emissions pathways – that is, when greenhouse gas emissions peak and the rate at which they must decline (e.g. peak sooner and then reduce less steeply versus peak later and then reduce more steeply).

But given advances in coupled climate-carbon models, a growing number of scientific papers3 have shown temperature is closely related to the total amount of CO2 emissions released over a time period – cumulative emissions – rather than the timing of those emissions. Taken another way, from a climate perspective, the total area under the emissions trajectory matters more for peak warming than the shape of that curve.

As emissions increase, a number of intervening processes occur which essentially cancel each other out, leading to the approximately linear relationship between warming and cumulative emissions. For example, as atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase, every tonne of carbon dioxide has less of an effect on warming (the strongest absorption bands are already saturated). However, many carbon sinks (e.g. the ocean) become less effective at absorbing carbon dioxide at higher concentrations of dissolved CO2. These effects roughly balance each other out, leading to a direct relationship between the total amount of CO2 emitted over a given time period and warming.

Should the Next Set of Commitments Under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Be Based on Cumulative Emissions?

It is critically important for the international community to keep in mind the total carbon budget when designing the next set of emissions-reduction commitments. Otherwise, targets can be made for certain points in time (e.g. 2030) without planning to limit the overall amount of emissions that build up in the years in between.

For example, many countries have already established 2020 emissions reduction goals without accounting for the overall carbon budget. This means emissions could rise until shortly before 2020 and then drop quickly. While the target would still be met, larger cumulative emissions would result than if emissions had steadily declined over the same period.

Yet the new research does not mean decision-makers should give up on timetable-based emissions-reduction targets. For example, Meinshausen et al. showed the higher emissions are in 2020, the more challenging it will be to limit warming to 2°C. If emissions peak later, the rates of decline afterwards become quite steep.

The Impacts of a 2°C World

  • Roughly 2.6 feet of sea level rise above 1980-99 by the end of the century
  • Average annual runoff decreasing 20-40 percent in the Danube, Mississippi, Amazon and Murray Darling river basins
  • Average annual runoff increasing about 20 percent in the Nile and Ganges basins
  • Forest fires almost doubling by 2050 in Amazonia with 1.5°C to 2°C above pre-industrial levels
  • The risk of crossing thresholds in tipping points in the Earth system (e.g. West Antarctic ice sheet disintegration and Amazon dieback) increase
  • The frequency of bleaching events exceeds ability of coral reefs to recover

Hedging on Rapid Decarbonization Is No Safe Bet

Betting our carbon budget on a fast decline in emissions later will not only be costly, but may be technologically unfeasible given the inertia in our energy system (e.g. the number of years it takes to turn over a fleet of vehicles or retrofit a power plant). Later peak years could require unprecedented rates of decline.

And even with strong international climate policies, more rapid decarbonization (the rate of decrease in emissions per unit of GDP) will require higher costs and major policy change. In order to avoid high rates of decarbonization, milestones along an emissions pathway (e.g. 2020, 2030, 2050 targets) can be very helpful, especially for the investment community. Milestones will also ensure that an unfair burden is not placed on the next generation.

But perhaps most importantly, one can argue for an even smaller budget and additional emissions constraints because non-CO2 gases are not included in 1 trillion tonne C figure. For example, short-lived greenhouse gases, such as methane, are not included in – nor necessarily appropriate for4 – the 1 trillion tonne C budget approach because they play a secondary role in influencing long-term warming.

However, when non-CO2 forcings are taken into account, the budget is reduced and that budget may depend on the scenario studied. For example, according to one scenario studied in the IPCC AR5 (RCP 2.6), when non-CO2 greenhouse gases are considered, the budget drops much lower to 800 PgC. This scenario would imply a leftover budget of only 269 PgC and an exhaustion of the budget in less than two decades if carbon dioxide emissions increase at a carbon-intensive rate.5

  1. Sustained negative emissions past the exhaustion date could theoretically compensate for positive emissions, so this analysis is illustrative. 
  2. See footnote 1 in data table. Assumes RCP 8.5 scenario. 
  3. NatureProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesNatureNatureAmerican Meteorological SocietyNature 
  4. Short-lived GHGs may be better controlled with a separate approach. For more information see here and here 
  5. See Table. Budget is exhausted in 2032 if RCP 8.5 CO2 growth rates are assumed. 

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  • JamesWimberley

    The eminent climate scientist Ken Caldeira argues that the ¨carbon budget¨ framing is wrong, because all net carbon emissions are damaging. It´s like saying your heart has a ¨grease budget¨ or your lungs a ¨smoke budget¨: you can probably consume a certain amount of junk food or cigarettes without getting into the red-light danger zone, but if you want to live a long and health life, the best bet is to stop now.
    If you do use the budget frame, qualify it all the time.

    • Bob_Wallace

      There’s a significant difference between using carbon that is already above the surface and carbon that is well underneath.

      • JamesWimberley

        That´s why I wrote ¨net carbon emissions¨. Biomass combustion just recycles carbon from the biosphere into the atmosphere and back again in a fairly short cycle.

        • Bob_Wallace

          I read net in a different way.

          Biomass/gas CO2 certainly isn’t a good thing, but if it keeps sequestered carbon sequestered then it’s something of an improvement.

  • Shiggity

    Solar PV is growing fast enough to decarbonize most of the world by the 2030s. Also by that time we’ll have weather modeling good enough to predict things further ahead of time.

    Obviously it’s going to be a lot rougher on anyone within 100 miles of a coastline. Don’t be all doom and gloom! If you really are that worried about it, I’d start your planning now. Be resilient and plan ahead.

    • Bob_Wallace

      Between all renewables and the efficiency boom the world is going to be a vastly different place by 2030.

      “We may have just about 30 years left”

      By 2043 I doubt there will be many gas stations left. Antique car enthusiasts will be refueling with biofuel that they buy by the drum. A return to the good old days of automobiles.

      Coal, I give ten years in much of Europe and North America. In NA existing coal plants are nearing their ‘used up’ date and won’t be replaced with coal. Europe is more level headed about climate change and will shut coal down. South America and Africa aren’t going to build coal plants and have to import fuel when they’ve got all the free sunshine, wind and deep Earth heat they can use.

      China, I think, is serious about reducing both pollution and GHG. India will be forced off coal for financial reasons.

      Natural gas supplies will be considerably less 20 years from now which will make the price much higher and push NG to a deep backup role.

      In the next five years we are likely to see Arctic sea ice melt out for the first time since humans have walked on the Earth. That’s likely to whack our weather. We should also experience an El Nino event which, on top of the ongoing warming, is going to bake a lot of people. This extreme weather is going to greatly increase pressure to work harder.

      I think we’re in the very early days of the transition off fossil fuels and installation/adoption rates are very flat compared to what is coming.

      • JamesWimberley

        Yes, we need a few more plagues of frogs and locusts before Pharaoh – us – gets serious, if he wants to avoid the really bad one: the genocidal death of all the firstborn.

        I partly share your technological optimism. But remember how that old story plays out: shocked a bit by each plague, Pharaoh promises to let the Hebrews go, but each time reverts to BAU and rescinds. Until it´s too late.

      • Matt

        India has already over build its coal plants and can’t supply them. Buying from overseas will drive up cost and push to PV/wind. The arctic melt impact on weather has already happen. That is why jet stream has been all over the place.

        • Bob_Wallace

          We’re not yet done in the Arctic. And some models predict that it will be relatively few years between the first summer meltout and a year round ice free Arctic Ocean.

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