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Bicycles bike-only-roads-6

Published on May 23rd, 2013 | by Zachary Shahan

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Bicycle Infrastructure Policy Needs To Change To Increase Ridership, Improve Public Health (Harvard Study & My Own)

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May 23rd, 2013 by Zachary Shahan 

Via the delectable Bikocity, here’s some recent news on bicycle infrastructure research and the need to change the bicycle guidelines in transportation planning’s “Bible” (something I’ve been advocating for, after researching the topic, for years) in order to stimulate a bigger boost in bicycle ridership and better public health.

More or less, bicycle infrastructure policy and its relationship to riderships was the topic of my 2007 master’s thesis. It’s been obvious to some of us for a long time that bicycle infrastructure policy needs to change in order to give bicycle ridership a big boost, and public health would of course improve from that, as well. Nonetheless, there was some debate regarding infrastructure, thanks to a rather small but loud group of cycling enthusiasts who thought not having bike lanes was a better policy than having bike lanes, and who especially hated off-road bike paths that intersected with roads. Quite frankly, I’ve always thought that was absurd. Now, it seems that the case has grown strong enough in favor of off-road bicycle paths (or cycle tracks) that Harvard researchers think the “Bible” of transportation planning needs to be updated to encourage off-road bicycle paths over (as in, instead of, not in the space above) on-road bicycle lanes.

Better Bicycle Facilities = More Bicycling

2-way off-road bike path and speed bumps in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

2-way off-road bike path and speed bumps in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

My master’s thesis was about the relationship between specific bicycle facilities and bicycle transportation rates. Already, there was a lot of research in support of off-road bicycle lanes, but it was largely “stated preference surveys” (not the best proof) or aggregate studies of large-scale investments in bicycling facilities and concurrent increases in bicycle travel (still quite speculative). My research was much more specific and rigorous, and it was the first (that my advisors and I were aware of) to look at such a wide range of options (i.e. off-road bike paths, bike roads, on-road bike lanes, aesthetics along bike routes, etc.). It included research in Montgomery County, Maryland as well as the city of Delft in the Netherlands.

I’ll highlight some of the key conclusions from my research (which included regression analyses):

In both Montgomery County and Delft, the best possible bicycle travel facilities in respondents’ home neighborhoods were significantly associated with higher levels of bicycle travel, strongly affirming initial hypotheses.

In Montgomery County, the existence of bicycle paths/trails in one’s home neighborhood was significantly correlated with bicycle travel from home to work, and the existence of sidewalks in one’s home neighborhood was significantly correlated with bicycling in or from one’s neighborhood. Sidewalks protected from the roadway by a buffer of parked cars had a particularly strong association with bicycling in or from one’s home neighborhood.

Bike-only transportation connection in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only transportation connection in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

In Delft, the presence of certain bicycle facilities and issues regarding their design were found to be significantly associated with bicycle travel in a number of instances. Bicycle-only roads—the largest and presumably most preferred type of bicycle infrastructure that was examined—in or near one’s home neighborhood were significantly and positively associated with the highest number of dependent variables of any bicycle facility variable—the number of times a respondent bicycled to work, the proportion of times they bicycled to work, and the proportion of times they bicycled to their common destination. This indicates that the better the bicycle facility, the more likely it is to influence bicycle travel. Bicycle lanes were also significantly and positively related to the number of times a respondent bicycled to work, indicating the importance of support travel facilities in auto-dominant urban environments.

Bike-only road next to canal in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only road next to canal in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Furthermore, the quality of the urban and natural scenery along bicycle travel routes (where they are located) was significantly related to the proportion of times a person traveled to work via bicycle and the number of times they traveled in or from their home neighborhood. Additionally, the entire scale for “design and quality of available bicycle facilities” was significantly associated with the number of times per week a respondent bicycled in or from their home neighborhood, as well as the total distance they bicycled in or from their home neighborhood. This implies that design and quality of bicycle facilities, and, in particular, the environments through which bicycle facilities pass, are very important to their effectiveness in attracting bicyclists and inducing bicycle travel.

Whether or not a person had ever lived in an area with considerably more bicycle facilities was significantly correlated with the proportion of times they bicycled to work, indicating a possible carryover effect of a habit that had been developed in a more bicycle friendly environment.

Bike-only road that goes under automobile road in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only road that goes under automobile road in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only roads also used by those in wheelchairs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only roads also used by those in wheelchairs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike paths go through beautiful parks and offer a quicker connection to the city center in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike paths go through beautiful parks and offer a quicker connection to the city center in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike path separated from the roadway via parked cars and medians in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike path separated from the roadway via parked cars and medians in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike paths separated from roadway by grassy area and also raised above the roadway in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike paths separated from roadway by grassy area and also raised above the roadway in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike path going through a green space in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike paths going through a green space and residential area in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike roads also in the suburbs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike roads also way out in the suburbs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike road out in the suburbs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike road out in the suburbs in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

And bike roads also go way, way out into the country in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

And bike roads also go way, way out into the country in Groningen, Netherlands. I think there’s a biker in the distance there using this one. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

OK, that’s all I’ll report from my research right now. On to the Harvard study….


Change The Transportation Planning Bible!

Harvard researchers came to similar findings. But they didn’t stop there. They took up the important work of advocating for changes in the most influential book in the transportation planning realm.

From the Harvard press release: “Bicycle engineering guidelines often used by state regulators to design bicycle facilities need to be overhauled to reflect current cyclists’ preferences and safety data, according to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers. They say that U.S. guidelines should be expanded to offer cyclists more riding options and call for endorsing cycle tracks – physically separated, bicycle-exclusive paths adjacent to sidewalks – to encourage more people of all ages to ride bicycles….

“Standards set by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in its Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities generally serve vehicles well but overlook most bicyclists’ needs, according to lead author Anne Lusk, research scientist in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH, who has been studying bicycling patterns in the U.S. and abroad for many years. ‘In the U.S., the default remains the painted bike lane on the road,’ she said, which is problematic since research has shown that women, seniors, and children prefer not to ride on roads with traffic.”

Yep. Unfortunately, AASHTO, based on no legitimate evidence, has always considered off-road bicycle paths as dangerous. “According to the researchers, the AASHTO guidelines discouraged or did not include cycle tracks due to alleged safety concerns and did not cite research about crash rates on cycle tracks.”

The Harvard researchers went ahead and did the research that AASHTO had passed over. “This study analyzed five state-adopted U.S. bicycle guidelines published between 1972 and 1999 to understand how the guidelines have directed the building of bicycle facilities in the U.S. They also wanted to find out how crash rates on the cycle tracks that had been built compared with bicycle crash rates on roadways in the U.S. They identified 19 cycle tracks in 14 cities in the U.S. and found these cycle tracks had an overall crash rate of 2.3 per one million bicycle kilometers ridden, which is similar to crash rates found on Canadian cycle tracks and lower than published crash rates from cities in North America for bicycling in the road without any bicycle facilities.”

In other words, build the damn cycle tracks! They are safer than bike lanes.

Bike-only roads with green spaces on the side quite common in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike-only roads with green spaces on the side quite common in Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Lusk, coming from Harvard’s School of Public Health, also made the important link to public health: “Bicycling, even more than walking, helps control weight and we need to provide comfortable and separate bicycle environments on existing roads so everyone has a chance for good health.” As did the press release: “Encouraging more cycling would be helpful for weight control, heart function, and would boost physical fitness for children and adults in addition to helping to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution from vehicles.”

After over a 1,200 words (this article) and dozens of research papers, the point remains clear: off-road bicycle paths are safer, preferred by most people, and should be encouraged and built.

Bike path next to sidewalk and separated from road by a median in the city center of Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

Bike path next to sidewalk and separated from roadway by a median in the city center of Groningen, Netherlands. Image Credit: Zachary Shahan / Bikocity

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About the Author

spends most of his time here on CleanTechnica as the director/chief editor. Otherwise, he's probably enthusiastically fulfilling his duties as the director/editor of Solar Love, EV Obsession, Planetsave, or Bikocity. Zach is recognized globally as a solar energy, electric car, and wind energy expert. If you would like him to speak at a related conference or event, connect with him via social media. You can connect with Zach on any popular social networking site you like. Links to all of his main social media profiles are on ZacharyShahan.com.



  • Matt

    My wife is from Holland and whenever we visit, I am blow away by how easy it is to get around with a bike. The US and much of the world has a lot to learn from the Dutch in this field.

    • http://zacharyshahan.com/ Zachary Shahan

      Definitely… Some of the cities there are like another world. Wonderful lifestyle.

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