Batteries Proposed pumped hydro system in Wales.

Published on September 3rd, 2013 | by Tina Casey


Wales Gets Huge New Water Battery But Loses Good Crack

September 3rd, 2013 by  

Wales has moved another step forward with the long-planned construction of a pumped hydro energy storage facility, which will reclaim two derelict slate quarries to store energy from local wind farms. It all sounds very sustainable and it is, partly because the sprawling new facility will re-use existing brownfields and industrial sites. However,  the new project comes at a cost. Over the years, the quarries have already been reclaimed as recreational climbing sites, and the new facility will cut off access to hiking routes and crack lines including The Good Crack, Clipopotamus, and The New Salesman among others.

Pumped Hydro in Brief

We’re fans of pumped hydro because it enables energy storage at an enormous scale at a relatively low cost based on a simple, technologically available concept: gravity. There are already hundreds of pumped hydro facilities worldwide, making it the only utility-scale energy storage system currently in common use.

The general idea is to pump vast quantities of water uphill into a reservoir when energy demand is low, then let it run downhill through turbines to provide for periods of increased demand.

The system is symbiotic with intermittent energy sources such as wind and solar power, since it evens out generating spikes while using clean, renewable energy to run the pumps.

Proposed pumped hydro system in Wales.

Quarry for pumped hydro system courtesy of Quarry Battery Company.

Pumped hydro is also an energy storage  solution for nuclear power, since nuclear power stations can’t be ramped up or down to accommodate peak and off-peak use.

The Glyn Rhonwy Pumped Storage Facility

The new pumped hydro facility is a project of The Quarry Battery Company. It will be built at two Glyn Rhonwy quarries above Llanberis, linked by a subsurface pipeline. The pumping station will also make use of brownfields, as it will be constructed in an existing industrial area.

The new facility will specifically make use of local wind farms. Adding to the sustainability fest, it will include a dam to be constructed from local slate.

The system was first proposed in 2006, beating out proposals to build an indoor ski center and a mountain biking center. The go-ahead for construction was granted just yesterday, on September 2, with completion anticipated in 2017.

The system can store about 1.1 billion liters of water, or the equivalent of about 500 megawatt-hours. Though relatively small for a pumped hydro facility, it fits into the U.K.’s big energy picture of maximizing local renewable energy resources.

New Uses for Old Brownfields

Here in the US, the Obama Administration has similarly made brownfields exploitation a key part of the “all of the above” energy policy under the Re-Powering America’s Lands initiative. The focus here is to re-use Superfund sites and other classified industrial sites for wind and solar power.

However, as the Glyn Rhonwy project demonstrates, reclaiming brownfields for renewable energy projects is not necessarily impact-free. Local groups are concerned about encroachment into common lands and the potential visual impact on an important recreation site, while The British Mountaineering Council points out that use of the Cefn Du and Mancer quarries would cut off access to climbers. Among the losses listed by BMC are “crack lines” including Liquid Armbar E4 6a, The Mancer Direct E3 5b, The Good Crack E3 6a, Clipopotamus F6b, and The New Salesman E4 6b.

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About the Author

specializes in military and corporate sustainability, advanced technology, emerging materials, biofuels, and water and wastewater issues. Tina’s articles are reposted frequently on Reuters, Scientific American, and many other sites. Views expressed are her own. Follow her on Twitter @TinaMCasey and Google+.

  • Aegys87

    Go UK! NOw just build more and more solar and wind power plant, screw those intermitten argument

  • Ronald Brakels

    Does this mean there are now people walking around in Wales asking, “Woz the crack?” and getting the reply, “It’s a pumped hydro facility.”

    (Note this comment will mean nothing to people who speak sensibly.)

  • Kiwiiano

    While I can sympathise with recreational climbers who will lose some facilities, let’s not forget that almost EVERYTHING humans do affects and loses something: cities, roads, ports, factories, farms, forests, you name it, something was lost in the making. In the mean time the pumped storage is going to help in reducing Britain’s carbon footprint by smoothing wind power output and reducing the need for Russian natural gas to be burnt. That is a major major advance!

  • JamesWimberley

    Glyn Rhonwy is a very small project at 50 MW. Wales already has a much bigger one, the 1.7 GW plant at nearby Dinorwig – designed to be able to reboot the entire British National Grid in the event of a catrastrophic, system-wide failure. The other big plant in Britain is the 440 MW one at Ben Cruachan in Scotland, with a turbine hall carved out inside the mountain. There´s one plan for a new plant on this scale, also in Scotland at Coire Glas (600MW).

    The 2.8 GW of these three plants alone will match almost 5% of peak UK demand of 60 GW. Not surprisingly, British planners are not treating grid battery storage with any urgency.

    • Breakingwind

      In an emergency UKs total pumped storage (23,279MW), could only supply 4% of max demand for 6 hrs then 0.8% for 4hrs.

      Full recovery time is approx 17hrs & takes about 36,373 MW of SURPLUS power !!!

      Britain currently has 4 major operating pumped storage schemes –

      Dinorwig – 1659 MW for 6 hrs

      Ffestiniog – 360 MW for 7hrs

      Cruachan Dam – 440MW for 10hrs [worlds first, opened in 1965]

      Foyers – 305 MW for 21hrs

      Plus 2 small schemes under construction (online 2016??)

      There are only 3 other possible sites in Britain which, if constructed would only give another 1 – 1.5% reserve but at a cost of
      £billions & take 8-10 yrs.

      Pumped Hydro uses approx 36% more power to pump the water uphill than it generates running down.

      ( Pumped Hydro is approx 80% efficient in each direction – so 100% energy in x 0.8 x 0.8 = 64 % out )

      Glyn Rhonwy’s 500MWh storage is 5% of nearby Dinorwig & will add approx 0.08% available capacity to the grid.

      British planners are not treating grid battery storage with any urgency, because of-

      1, low power density.

      2 .high losses, + multiple gender change losses.

      3. high cost to benefit ratio.

      4. battery technologies are dirty, poluting & expensive at both ends of life

      new battery technologies are being developed …but doubtful if they will be in use for next 10/20yrs.

  • Ross

    Go Wales!

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