Published on February 16th, 2013 | by Zachary Shahan


Tesla Model S Owners Decide To Show How John Broder Should Have Test Driven The Model S

February 16th, 2013 by  

The cleantech story of the week has probably been the infamous test drive of the Tesla Model S by New York Times‘ John Broder. Aside from the article linked above (largely a data-packed rebuttal to John Broder’s claims), we’ve posted a couple pieces on this story:

Now, the news is that a handful of Tesla Model S owners have set out on the same trip that John Broder took (and somehow failed to finish) in order to show just how easy the trip is.

The drivers will even stay in the same hotel that Broder stayed in. They’ve also set up a Twitter account for logging their trip(s). Here’s one tweet from 5 hours ago:

Here’s one with a pic of a couple of the owners/drivers:

Why do I have a feeling none of these guys are going to have any problems along the way?

What are the takeaway points of all this? Here are my thoughts and hopes:

1. If Broder decided to drive the Model S to dead on purpose, that was idiotic.

Tesla has a strong following, and the fact that the Model S won 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year doesn’t hurt that. Tesla collects data on test drives (ever since Top Gear misrepresented a drive they took in order to match their storyline). Apparently, Broder asked for Tesla’s data before writing his story. (Hmm, to make sure he knew what he could lie about?) Woops, Tesla had a lot of data and apparently didn’t share enough with Broder for him to avoid saying things that weren’t true according to the data. (Better be careful before you try to pull a scam on the tech innovators.)

Plus, be aware that there are now a lot of Model S owners who absolutely love their top-ranking car. They will defend it. Broder’s reputation is crushed in the eyes of many. The New York Times‘ reputation is, as well. Tesla is getting more press; the car has demonstrated extremely well in other drives along the exact same route; and now a bunch of Tesla Model S owners are providing even more awareness raising to show (again) how easy it is to successfully drive that route.

2. A lot of discrepancies in Tesla’s data and Broder’s claims.

Tesla’s data seemed to show in several instances that Broder went far out of his way to make the car “accidentally” fail. Apparently, many still aren’t sure who to trust. Simple things like Broder turning up the heat when he says he turned it down, driving for circles in a parking lot, and not fully charging the car when it’s clear that the car needs a full charge ring enough alarm bells for me. But hey, everyone is entitled to their own judgement. But also consider these points: Broder has a history of anti-EV articles, and what does a reporter get more attention for than controversy? (I know, if the facts didn’t sway you, that probably won’t, but seriously — think for a second.)

3. This test drive is a great way to get more eyes on electric vehicles, and it should be a launching pad to more action.

The #1 thing holding back electric vehicles today is public awareness. The technology is ready. The costs have come down. And electric vehicles are more convenient than gasoline-powered vehicles the majority of the time. The #1 obstacle is that people don’t understand that, that they’ve been misinformed by dishonest or narrow-minded journalists. I hope that this ride will help to bring more widespread attention to the possibility of owning an electric car today, and I hope it will spur on more and more actions that get people realizing how good of an option EV technology now is. The best way to make that happen is for more people who actually know the story with EVs today to get out there and help inform more of the general populous.

Check out our new 93-page EV report, based on over 2,000 surveys collected from EV drivers in 49 of 50 US states, 26 European countries, and 9 Canadian provinces.

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About the Author

is tryin' to help society help itself (and other species) with the power of the typed word. He spends most of his time here on CleanTechnica as its director and chief editor, but he's also the president of Important Media and the director/founder of EV Obsession, Solar Love, and Bikocity. Zach is recognized globally as a solar energy, electric car, and energy storage expert. Zach has long-term investments in TSLA, FSLR, SPWR, SEDG, & ABB — after years of covering solar and EVs, he simply has a lot of faith in these particular companies and feels like they are good cleantech companies to invest in.

  • To @EVDriver :

    I’ve updated the cost comparison spreadsheet (link below). A few notes:

    1- Maintenance costs were never calculated in the initial spreadsheet. There was a placeholder for them, but perhaps I decided to leave them out of the calculation due to uncertainty with the EV costs. (So, initial benefit to the gasmobiles there.)

    A study on the difference in costs was recently published on this matter, so the maintenance costs are now based on that, and included in the calculation.

    2- Projected battery replacement costs are now included, based on projections by U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu. (They don’t really change much. The EV savings at 9 years go from $20,746 to $17,896. Not insignificant, but insignifiant when it comes to which car wins based on price alone.)

    3- I’ve put a call-out for more input on the assumptions used, and I’ll soon do comparisons with more competitive EVs (the Ford Focus Electric isn’t exactly the most competitive EV on the market. ;D) Thanks for pushing me to do better calculations… which I imagine are simply going to put EVs in better light. But we’ll see….

    Link to the spreadsheet:

  • The discrepancies between Broder’s article and Musk’s logs amount to quibbling over details. Broder DID turn down the heat and he DID slow down a great deal in a place where I would have wanted heat and speed. I doubt that he was deliberately inviting a rear-end collision in furtherance of some imagined vendetta against EVs.
    EVs get bad press because there are plenty of situations where they are unsuitable, EV fanboy claims notwithstanding. Broder was invited to test the Tesla with Supercharger network as an example of the practicality of long-distance travel in an EV. The Times had previously published a very positive article about a drive using the West Coast Supercharger network. Well, guess, what? It gets COLD in New England and the distance to Superchargers is not insignificant.
    The #1 thing holding back EVs today is exactly what it was 10 years ago… COST, RANGE and CHARGE TIME. It has gotten better, the Tesla is far nicer and has better range than a Renaul LeCar full of lead-acid batteries but the car is still close on to $100K to go maybe 250 miles and, all told, Broder spent at least 4 hours waiting at a charger of some type for a trip that would require less than 10 minutes of refuelling time and cost $30 in gas in a $24K Prius. And you’d have waste heat to keep you toasty.

    • A trip length that accounts for less than 1% of trips. If you can’t use common sense on the trip, don’t take it. If you want a better car for you daily, weekly, and monthly needs, get an EV and then rent a car or take another one you or a family member owns for those long, infrequent trips. Pretty simple.

      What’s holding back EVs is fear and misconceptions.

      • If a car can’t do 100% of what people imagine they routinely need, they won’t buy it. The Tesla has $7500+ in taxpayer cash loaded into the trunk of each one and Musk is admitting they’ve had a fair number of cancellations.

        In fact, looking further afield, the Leaf, iMiev and Volt all have wads of taxpayer cash stuffed into the gloveboxes and they’re not setting the world on fire.

        As for “if you can’t use common sense…” pay attention. Broder was invited to try the car out as a test of the practicality of long-distance travel in a Tesla using the Supercharger network. Nobody gave him an EV aptitude test or a lengthy pre-flight briefing. “Here’s the car, go…”

        Tesla was suffering from overconfidence. They admitted, later, that the chargers are really too far apart. What a surprise!

        By the way, trips of that length and longer account for well over 50% of the usage of my Prius. Toyota aimed for affordable and made a landmark leap forward in affordable cars with the Prius. Musk aimed for “expensive toy of limited usage and appeal” and managed that. Well done, Elon!

        • Bob_Wallace

          Broder was informed about the ability of the S. He was told that he needed to drive at the speed limit. He chose to drive much faster.

          He kept the cabin temperature higher than most people would for most of the trip and lied about it.

          He failed to fully charge even when the S informed him that he was leaving the charge point without enough capacity to make his next leg. Another 12 minutes of charging would have given him more than ample range.

          Broder failed to use common sense. He acted like an ass.

          • I’d like to see you prove either of your supposedly factual assertions regarding speed and cabin temp.

            The one time he left a charge point without gaining enough charge to make his next stop (which was to be another charger – what fun), the car was charging at the rate of a few miles per hour and Tesla had given him bad advice concerning magical range recovery (and the previous evening he’d been surprised to find that 0 range doesn’t mean 0 range, you know, when the Tesla “valiantly refused to die”).

            Tesla dug themselves a hole and all Musk has done is draw more attention to it. It’s hilarious to see the EV fanboys fuming when it’s revealed their emperor has no clothes.

          • Bob_Wallace

            Tesla posted the data logs from Broder’s trip., I’m pretty sure Zach has posted them on this site,.

            They show that Broder drover far faster than he was supposed and faster than he said he did. They show he had the cabin temperature set quite high. They show that he deviated from the set course apparently to give someone (his brother in law?) a ride. They show he drove in circles around a parking lot for a while. They show that the car was reporting that he had more range available than he reported he had.

            Broder is nothing but a damned liar.

          • My goodness, people here are pretty free with the invective. I suppose that’s what happens when they discover the emperor has no clothes.
            Unusual cold (and not even extreme cold – just unusual) plus bad advice from Tesla plus no training plus no particular experience leads to an expected result. The Superchargers are too far apart (Tesla admits this). Even Supercharging takes a long time, too long for people who have places to be and things to do (Broder had already charged for two hours before tucking in for the night, as opposed to less than 10 minutes fuelling at a gas station would have taken). Nobody told him to seek out a plug for the night. Nobody game him a speed limit or maximum cabin temperature.
            Overmight, range evaporated. Broder worked with Tesla to get to a slow charger and Tesla said, “charge for an hour, then go do the Supercharger.” There was discussionof “Magical Range Restoration.” Broder charged for an hour and fifteen or twenty minutes, which strikes me as a good-faith effort to do what was required.
            In addition to the two hours charging, Broder went far slower than i would go on that road and had the cabin heat set far lower than I would have set it. Did he set it precisely where he said or when Tesla inferred he set it or go precisely as fast as he remembered precisely when Tesla inferred he said he went so-and-so- fast? No, you get to quibble about that. But he did get to run up the Interstate with cars and trucks breathing fire down his back and his hands getting chilly on the wheel, allegdly driving a “premium” car with “awesome” performance and comfort.

          • Bob_Wallace

            Here, Here’s the data that proves Broder is a liar,

            Things is, Broder apparently though he could make a more interesting article if he purposely ran out of juice sooner than he should have. He tried to create a fictional story and got caught because the Tesla has a “black box”: recorder that stores the data from all systems,


            Why do you find it necessary to be such an idiot?

          • Tesla’s logs showed him driving well over the speed limit. they also showed that he turned the heat up when he said he turned it down. believe Broder’s sensational story or believe the data logs – it’s your call.

        • “Ass,” “liar,” “idiot.” I see insults come easily to you. If only critical thinking came so easily to you.

          Tesla admitted none of this was Broder’s fault, that it was their own overconfidence, when they said the Superchargers were too far apart. QED.

          EVs + Long Distance Travel + Cold = Marginal

          You have not shown where Broder was told he was required to drive at the speed limit and nobody on that road drives the speed limit. Are you implying that Tesla has built a tour-de-force in electro-motive engineering but it’s suitable only for the slow lane?

          You have also not shown that the cabin temp Broder initially used was “higher than most people would.” Show evidence of the setting a majority of people choose for their cabin temperature.

          You have not shown where Broder was briefed, extensively or effectively, on the particular foibles of the vehicle and cautioned about the importance of keeping the speed down, cabin temp low, fully – FULLY – charging, that he was shown where the “Range Max Charge” button is… none of that.

          You’re just bent out of shape, like so many EV fanboys, about bad publicity for your toys and you’re lashing out. You should find a more productive way to spend your time.

          Frankly, I’d love to see this go to court in some way. Then I’ll be treated to the spectacle of EV fanboys fuming at the judge when Tesla fails to make a case, as happened with Top Gear.

          Did you notice that one of Broder’s key contacts on his trip, a source of considerable misinformation, has been moved to SpaceX? Have you given any thought as to why?

        • – it’s common sense to fully charge your car to make a long stretch (and, particularly, to et the ‘battery miles left’ to more than ‘miles left to drive’.

          – over 50% of trips being that length is FAR, FAR outside the average. if i remember correctly, fewer than 97% (or even fewer than 99%) of drives are that long. but, certainly, if you drive for a living, a PHEV is probably a better choice for now if you won’t clearly have charging stations adequate for you needs. (of course, if you’re driving that much, the savings from using electricity instead of gas are just that much greater.)

          – many others have now made this drive in similar weather.

          • and regarding EVs in general — it takes a lot of work to get people to adopt a whole new technology, especially if they aren’t self-motivated to educate themselves much about it.

  • EVDriver

    Geez, are these Tesla owners or Scientologists? What a cult!

    Anyway, they’d better make sure to stop overnight and park the car in 10-degree temperatures. They should also be sure to call Tesla’s tech support, and ask for the dumbest people they’ve got, so they can get the same contradictory misinformation that the N.Y. Times reporter was given.

    Look, we know what happened. It’s the same thing that happens with every lithium-ion powered car. It got cold out, and the battery range degraded. The next morning, Tesla’s moronic CSR told the reporter that it’d be okay to drive because the battery’s range would recover. But it never got warm enough, so the car died and had to be put on a tow truck.

    Instead of just admitting what every owner of an EV knows and telling the reporter that cold weather degrades lithium-ion battery range, Tesla’s CEO thought he’d brazen it out and accuse the reporter of “faking” his review. A writeup in Consumer Reports published on Feb. 15 documents that, in cold weather, the Model S range is only two-thirds of what the company claims it to be. Tesla’s own owner’s club blog shows complaints out of Canada about range disappearing and not coming back after being parked outside in the cold.

    Instead of being cult-like fanboys, just be truthful. Come on, children, those of us who own EVs are not surprised by what happened to the reporter. He was burned by Tesla’s inflated range claim compared to the reality of cold-weather battery performance. It’s that simple. There’s no conspiracy, only Elon Musk’s ocean-sized ego and his cult fanclub’s foolish worship.

  • earl hickey

    “The #1 thing holding back electric vehicles today is public awareness”

    te number one thing holding back public awareness is the price of the car.

    • no, not really, which is why i didn’t put that. 😉

  • HoldenMonaro

    Let’s see, you build a car that looks and goes like a sportscar but when someone drives it like a sportscar it runs dry well short of the stated range. tesla lost the court case against top gear simply because the vehicle did not reach the stated range when driven hard. What is the point of a $100,000 vehicle that looks like an Aston Martin if you have to drive around like a little old lady in a prius. And don’t crank up the heat during winter? What is the point of this car? Biggest failing is the noise, driving around in a prius with just the sound of a monk humming under the hood is fine, but you really need that V12 soundtrack if your driving a vehicle for the thrill of driving.

    • A Tesla Model S can be driven as hard as you want, and like a gas powered performance car, you’ll pay a price in terms of range. Cruise any exotic car at 100+mph, and you’ll be making frequent refueling stops. When Tesla builds more Supercharger stations, spaced at shorter intervals, vehicle speed and cabin temperature will become non-issues.

      As for engine sound, the Model S offers a completely different kind of thrill, more akin to hyperdrive space travel. You have to experience it to understand how cool it is. I’ve owned four Ferraris over the years, and this is definitely a step beyond.

    • Kerry Manderbach

      HoldenMonaro, you’re going to have to get used to the concept of not being able to be as wasteful as previous generations. In your parents and grandparents world, you could pollute and waste fuel helter skelter and not worry too much about it. But that’s what brought us to this point, isn’t it? These vehicles might look sexy, but are made to transport you from point A to B while being easy on the environment. Leave the “Thrill of driving” and the “V12 soundtrack” to a bygone era where they belong. The only choice (and chance) we have for the future is to change our habits. Those of us who drove de-tuned Musclecars in the early 1980’s (known as “decal Musclecars”) had to get used to the new realities of those times. Be satisfied with the look of the car and the fact that we actually can still drive our own vehicles here in the early 21st Century….

      • The guy’s got a size problem and he’s just trying to cover it up…for somebody?

      • HoldenMonaro

        I have no issue with electric vehicles for those that want to feel they are helping the environment, for city and suburban residents that only commute short distances they may be wonderful alternatives. I also understand that as a car lover, I am part of a dying breed that is increasingly being shunned by society. The automotive pornography of a Ferrari 250 GT California, the orgasmic Symphony of a lexus lfa, the pantomime of a lamborghini countach and the pleasure and pain of owning an alfa are things that we are told to be ashamed of now and to be replaced with soulless generic A to B transportation. For me it is just tesla that puzzles me, either it is a $100,000 high performance tourer that can be driven hard for a fun weekend to the mountains without having to plan every inch of the journey or it is a stylish $100,000 Toyota prius alternative for daily city commutes at 35mph

        • Ross Chandler

          “I am part of a dying breed that is increasingly being shunned by society”


        • The car has thrilled the auto world, gearheads from east to west. Sure, there may be some (like you) who don’t get it, but as the 4-Ferrari owner above mentions, “this is definitely a step beyond.” (Note: perhaps you simply have a nostalgia complex.)

      • EVDriver

        Speaking of “wasteful,” Tesla’s Model S weighs more than 4,000 pounds, and consumes, best as I can tell, 35% more electrons per mile as a subcompact EV. You can guzzle electricity same as gas.

    • Bob_Wallace

      The problem is not how Broder drove the car.

      The problem is that Broder lied about how he drove the car.

      Spend time driving in circles around a parking lot, take a detour to give your brother a ride, fail to charge the car when you were supposed to – sure you won’t get to where the math showed you could go. That’s not news.

      Gas cars are also range limited. Set out on a drive that you should be able to make on one tank of gas, don’t fill your tank before leaving, pile on a lot of extra miles, do a lot of inefficient driving and you won’t make it. Also not news.

      Lie about what you did and make news? That should get you fired.

      • Pieter Siegers

        I totally agree with you Bob!

        If Broder lied (and unfortunately for him everything points to that) then my guess is he couldn’t withstand Big Dirty Oil’s offer.

        NY Times should investigate this case to the bottom and take appropiate action to clear their image. That woud be the real story.

        Then maybe the real truth comes to the surface.

        • Bob_Wallace

          I doubt he got paid to write a false study.

          Based on what little I know about his history I think he did not enter this evaluation of the S as an objective reporter.

          Apparently he was given instructions by Tesla on how to complete the drive without running out of juice. Part of the instructions were to keep his speed down. The logs show him driving at excessive speeds at times.

          An objective/honest reporter would have reported that he was told that he couldn’t drive fast, but he did not follow that advice.

          He seems to have omitted facts that would have led to a fair and balanced story.

          • EVDriver

            Tesla’s logs, which have not been authenticated and cannot be authenticated because the company refuses to release the raw data, show the reporter traveling mostly in the 50s and 60s. But hey, I’ll have to remember that if you take a Tesla Model S downhill and let it go up to 81 miles an hour, it will die on you. All this for a hundred grand. Wow!

          • When they handed him the car, they did not say, “keep your speed down.” The car, after charging in Delaware and after charging in Milford, told him that he had more than enough miles in the tank to make the trip… and the car was wrong. When he called for advice, they told him to slow down and the logs unequivocally show that he did slow down. You can quibble about how much and when but he still slowed down way below prevailing traffic speed.
            Broder’s one real mistake was not getting a better charge at the public utility charging station but the Tesla had already been sucking electrons for an hour when he pulled the plug (and, apparently, Tesla thought that was a good bet).
            I don’t know abbout you, but I don’t set out on road trips to stand around waiting for my car to take on fuel at the rate of 5 miles a minute (best Supercharger rate) or less (Utility charger rate – who knows what that was).

            None of this is dishonest reporting. It’s honest reporting about how people who buy into an EV had better be prepared to make compromises.

          • There were several claims that clearly didn’t match Tesla’s records. If those were wrong (and Broder has an anti-EV background) how are you going to claim that his other statements about the misunderstandings and mis-statements that doomed his trip were truthful.

          • He went slower than the prevailing traffic for long periods of time with the heat dialled way down below the comfort level. You and Musk can quibble about this all you like but the fact is, the car is marginal on that run and Tesla knows it, witness the fact that they’ve admitted the Superchargers are too far apart.

      • EVDriver

        Wow, so if you own a Tesla you’d better not take a two-mile detour, or drive 0.6 miles looking for a charger, or it’ll die? Such a deal!

    • Bob_Wallace

      ” Biggest failing is the noise, driving around in a prius with just the sound of a monk humming under the hood is fine, but you really need that V12 soundtrack if your driving a vehicle for the thrill of driving.”

      And that might be the silliest criticism of an EV I’ve ever seen.

      “Biggest failing of driving a car is the sound. They should whinny and fart like a horse!”

      • HoldenMonaro

        It’s like trying to explain art to a blind man. yes I know I am dinosaur, one of those passionate car lovers that appreciates the unexplainable qualities that makes a car special, but it’s not just the sound but the rumble you feel in your spine when you rev the engine at the stop lights, the ability to control the car in a drift with the throttle by listening to the engine note. you can say these are childish immature and irresponsible ways to behave in a car but that is what a $100,000 super tourer should be all about, thrill and theatre, sound and presence, you want people to hear you coming. if you just want a quiet morning commute you take the much cheaper prius or leaf .

        • Bob_Wallace

          I’m probably as old, or older, than you. I grew up in the ’40s and ’50s when fast cars were what floated a young man’s boat.

          My first car was a flathead Ford which I had bored and stroked. Installed a Holly with big jets. And a cherry bomb muffler (not sure that’s what they were called back then). It roared and hauled ass. Hauled ass really well in a straight(ish) line.

          I owned a ’57 Fury with a monster of an engine. Aim, step down on the accelerator, and start praying you could get it to go where you wanted.

          Then I discovered sports cars. They ripped through curves, you didn’t have to come to an almost stop, turn the curve and regain speed. A lot less noise, a lot more finesse.

          After that large engine but crummy handling cars had no appeal. I could get there faster and with a feeling of being more in control than those driving muscle cars.

          I’m looking forward to my first EV. I want the feeling of having all that torque available under your toes. I don’t need the noise and thrashing sounds of a bunch of explosions going on under my hood to make my driving enjoyable.

          • EVDriver

            Bob, as an EV owner who likes his car, let me tell you a few things that neither Tesla nor its brigade of fanboy Scientologists want you to know.

            1. Torque depends on how big of an engine, just like with gas. Near as I can tell, the Model S uses about 35% more electrons per kWh as a subcompact EV. As with gas, you’ll pay for that torque.

            2. Range is anyone’s guess. Winter range in the Model S is about two-thirds of what Tesla claims, and only then if you drive it like an old lady. Range meters, whether in the form of a simple dial or a fancy digital readout like in the Model S, are often way off. We EV owners call them “guess-o-meters.”

            3. There are typically lots of other glitches with these things, often because they’re so new that the manufacturer (for example) didn’t figure on oddball interactions between the big battery and the 12-volt battery. The N.Y. Times reporter got trapped when he shut off the Model S, and the 12-volt system locked the parking brake on him even though there was juice left in the big battery.
            4. Tesla isn’t really a car company. They’re one more Silicon Valley hype merchant, so they do what computer companies have always done. They overstate their claims, and then blame any problems on the beta testers, also known as customers. My advice to you is to buy your EV from a real car company that’s accustomed to standing behind its products.

          • EVDriver

            Correction to my point #1. I should have written: “Near as I can tell, a subcompact EV gets 35% more miles per kWh than Tesla’s Model S.”

    • EVDriver

      Holden, trust me, that reporter didn’t even drive it like a sportscar. I not only have an EV, but I also own a 12-cylinder, high-performance gas car. The N.Y. Times reporter hit 81 miles an hour once, on a downhill stretch. The rest of the time he was driving at or near the speed limit.

    • professor Anne

      This Broder guy simply got into a car without informing himself properly about it.

      But you know what? Elon Must got up to the same sort of stupidity in his McLaren F1, crashed it because he lost control. It didn’t have traction control.

      The difference? Elon Musk didn’t blame the car.

  • sandy222

    I love Tesla and everything they’re doing … is it possible, remotely .. that this whole thing was rigged from the start? Create controversy? Or has Broder come to look like such a liar that he would never have agreed with TMC to do it?

  • I also had a dishonesty problem with Amy Harmon, NY Times reporter who wrote the article “Seeking Columbus’s Origins, With a Swab” Half of the information in the article was provided by me and through me, yet not a single word was mentioned about her source nor about the 20 years I spent doing my research on Columbus. In the end I thought it was a simple oversight, but when I called her attention to this, she simply ignored my several emails and to this day has not acknowledged her usurping of my work on “COLÓN La Historia Nunca Contada” [COLUMBUS. The Untold Story] as the source for her article. Sooner or later these dishonest reporters shoot themselves in the foot and their integrity becomes crippled.

    • Ridiculous. The NYTimes has been on a downward slope, but that’s pretty bad.

  • Karl-Friedrich Lenz

    I think this whole fight can only help to raise awareness. The association of electrical vehicles makers (is there such an association?) should give Broder some kind of medal for his effective help in getting the message out.

    • Yes, but the medal should be as heavy as an anvle and he should be court ordered to wear it whenever he is out in public.

    • Yes, I’ve mused on this a bit. My guess is that there’s an overall benefit from it. A lot more people have become aware of the availability of EVs (and even high-performance EVs) and those who decide to dig further into the matter with an open mind may become EV owners.

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